This procedure is done to help determine reasons for blood in the urine, frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs), an overactive bladder, or pelvic pain. It also helps in diagnosing an enlarged prostate, bladder tumors, bladder stones, or certain urological cancers. In a cystoscopy, a small tube like camera is inserted into the urethra and advanced into the bladder. At the same time and with the same instrument, the bladder will be filled with sterile water allowing a more thorough view of the lining of the urethra, bladder and the openings of the ureteral orifices. Depending on the physician and patient, the procedure can be done with or without sedation and usually takes just a few minutes. Following the procedure patients will spend a short amount of time in recovery and then will be allowed to go home and resume their usual diet and activities. Patients will need to drink extra fluids to help reduce the chance of post procedure pain or infection. Additionally, some people may notice blood in their urine for up to a week. This is normal.